Though there is no authentic history of Sheikhpura scripted in any book or records but according to knowledge collected from various sources history of Sheikhpura dates back to the age of Mahabharata. It is believed that in the Mahabharata age a demon girl Hidimba lived on the hillocks situated on its Eastern stretch with whom one Pandava brother Bhima married and gave birth to a heroic son 'Ghatotkach'. Later on this hill was called 'Girihinda' after the name of Hindimba or Hidimba. Girihinda village is still situated over there.
According to one belief about six hundred years ago a great suphie saint 'Hazarat Makhdum Shah Shoeb Rahamatullah Aleh' had founded the city of Sheikhpura. He settled over here and the dense forests were cleaned and people started settling over here. Later on it became densely populated.
During the Pallava reign also Sheikhpura was one of the chief administrative centres. It is believed that the famous Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri had got the famous 'Dal Kuan' constructed over here. Till now 'Dal Kuan' and Sheikhpura is believed to be synonymous with each other.
During the mughal period, Sheikhpura got the status of Thana. In the British period Sheikhpura was accorded the status of Big Kotwali and after independence it was given the status of Block. On 14th April 1983 Sheikhpura became a Subdivision and on 31st July 1994 it was upgraded to District status. .
Sheikhpura is a new district carved out of Munger district on 31-07-1994. District Head Quarter Sheikhpura is situated at North side of Gaya-Kuel Rail line. This district lies in the southern part of Bihar that is bounded by Nalanda & Patna district in North, Nawada & Jamui district in South, Lakhisarai district in East and Nalanda & Nawada district in West. The district spanning in 77705 hectares is situated between North latitudes 24º45' and 25º and East longitude 85º45' and 86º45'.
Topographically district has two types of region – the rocky highland formed by hilly portion in centre, surrounded by fertile land in North, South, East and West. The land is sloping towards North Eastern side. Because of the low lying area in some parts of the North Eastern side, the water gets accumulated during rainy season leading to water-logged conditions. This area is geographically known as Tal area.
The district has hot summers & moderate winters. Summers start from middle of March and lasts till July. The monsoon usually breaks in the second half of June and lasts till September.
Annual Rainfall Stastistics :
- District - 1207mm
- Ariari - 943mm
- Barbigha - 1052mm
- Sheikhpura - 930mm
The district has rich alluvial soil composed of sand, silt and clay in most parts of district. The soil is most fertile and suitable for agriculture. The alkaline and saline deposits are rarely found.
There are no big rivers of perennial nature worth to be mentioned in this district. Of course there are some small rivers which flow during rainy season viz Somi, Korihari, Tati, Kachchi & Rijown.